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Didaktiske modeller

Instructional design (ID), also known as instructional systems design (ISD), is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional materials and experiences, both digital and physical, in a consistent and reliable fashion toward an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring acquisition of knowledge. The process consists broadly of determining the state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some “intervention” to assist in the transition. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.” ifølge Wikipedia

Under illustrationen er en række relevante didaktiks modeller.

Overview of Gagné’s instructional theory

  • Gaining attention
    To ensure reception of coming instruction, the teacher gives the learners a stimulus. Before the learners can start to process any new information, the instructor must gain the attention of the learners. This might entail using abrupt changes in the instruction.
  • Informing learners of objectives
    The teacher tells the learner what they will be able to do because of the instruction. The teacher communicates the desired outcome to the group.
  • Stimulating recall of prior learning
    The teacher asks for recall of existing relevant knowledge.
  • Presenting the stimulus
    The teacher gives emphasis to distinctive features.
  • Providing learning guidance
    The teacher helps the students in understanding (semantic encoding) by providing organization and relevance.
  • Eliciting performance
    The teacher asks the learners to respond, demonstrating learning.
  • Providing feedback
    The teacher gives informative feedback on the learners’ performance.
  • Assessing performance
    The teacher requires more learner performance, and gives feedback, to reinforce learning.
  • Enhancing retention and transfer
    The teacher provides varied practice to generalize the capability.

Overview of Gagné's instructional theory

Hiim og Hippe

bruger jeg selv som didaktisk tjekliste. Her er deres didaktiske relationsmodel med Vibe Aarkrogs forslag til relevante teorier.

Merril’s Principle of instruction (MPI)

“Bent on ingraining maximum knowledge from each course, MPI is remembered as the first principles of instruction. Proposed by David Merril in 2002, this framework holistically integrates five principles of learning, namely:
  • Task-centered principle
  • Activation principle
  • Demonstration principle
  • Application principle
  • Integration principle

The principles promote learning in the following manner: Learning starts with real-world problems. Students should be able to relate to problems and tasks they can handle. A course must activate existing knowledge base of the learner; hence aiding them connect previous knowledge with the new one. A course must demonstrate the knowledge (both visually and through story telling) so that it leverages different regions of the brain, hence retaining it longer. Allow them to apply new information on their own. Let them practice and learn from their mistakes. Let them see how your new material works in concrete situations The course must offer possibilities for integrating the knowledge into the learner’s world through discussion, reflection, and/or presentation of new knowledge.”




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